This update introduces support for synchronizing the displays of ATI
based dual-display setups on OS/X, experimental support for 10 bit
native framebuffers on some graphics hardware, smallish fixes for demos
and subroutines, and a few new demos and tests in
PsychTests, as well as improvements to existing demos. The new
IOPort has been improved as well.
IOPort Serial port hardware support
IOPort driver has been refined in a few areas. The driver is
still much work in progress, with a few useful features missing.
However, it should be already a superior replacement for all old serial
port drivers like
SerialComm and Matlabs
objects for most purposes.
nonBlockingflag of the
IOPort('Read')subfunctions is replaced by a
blockingflag instead! If you didn’t specify that flag in code using that driver, you won’t need to change anything in your code, because the default behaviour is the same - and the default is pretty reasonable. If you specified that flag in your code, you’ll have to change that flag to be the opposite of what it was! If you used a setting of
0, change it to
1and vice versa. The old flag
nonBlockingused a double-negation - A setting of zero meant no non blocking operation, ie., blocking operation! Beta testing proved that this twisted definition is too hard on the brain, including the brain of the person that developed the driver ;-) – The meaning of the new
blockingflag is easy to understand, so the potential of wrong use of that flag should be greatly reduced.
On GNU/Linux, the
blockingflag in the
IOPort('Write')subfunction can also be set to a setting of
2, on other operating systems a setting of
2is treated like a setting of
1for now. A settting of
2requests use of an especially low-latency mode of waiting for write completion. This is useful for code that needs especially high timing precision in sending data out of the serial port, but it incurs much higher processor load, so it should be used judiciously. With some serial port hardware, it can cause a complete hang of the application due to low level driver bugs (e.g., the current FTDI serial-over-usb driver).
IOPort('Verbosity',0)verbosity level zero, the driver won’t abort an
[handle, errmsg] = IOPort('OpenSerialPort',...);call anymore if opening the serial port fails. Instead it returns
handleto be a negative number and returns an operating system dependent error message in the optional return argument
errmsg. The text string
errmsgcontains some specific (searchable) text tokens to signal some frequent error conditions. Specifically, the text string
ENOENTis contained in
errmsgif one tries to open a non-existent serial port device. Accessing a device which is already opened by some other process, or with insufficient access permissions, or opening a serial port that exists but doesn’t have an operational device connected, will return
EPERMas part of the
errmsgstring. This behaviour and tokens allows custom written Matlab code to auto-detect and probe available and operational serial ports by trying to open known ports and checking the return codes. Useful for automatic device detection.
Help texts have been improved as well.
CedrusResponseBoxdriver has been improved to take advantage of the improved
IOPortdriver for higher robustness in error handling. The overall robustness of Cedrus response box support hasn’t increased though, but we are quite certain that this is mostly due to design flaws in the response boxes. Still no response from Cedrus developer support, 4 month after an inquiry… See also Docs:CedrusResponseBox
Improvements to Screen – The Visuals
Most improvements are related to the image processing pipeline. While
the detailed documentation is contained in the files referenced below,
most functions are accessed and controlled by the
function and the basic help for how to use them can be found there.
Demos mentioned below demonstrate this stuff in “real world” scripts.
- Support for native 10 bits per color component (10 bpc) framebuffers on some graphics hardware + operating system combinations:
- On GNU/Linux and OS/X with ATI Radeon GPU’s of the consumer level
Radeon X1000 series and the Radeon HD2000 / 3000 / 4000 series and
later, we provide experimental support for 10 bit framebuffers
with our own homegrown solution. On Linux you need to start Octave
or Matlab as system administrator or via the
sudocommand so it has the neccessary permissions to do so. On OS/X you need to load our special
help PsychtoolboxKernelDriverfor how to do that. Support is experimental in the sense that we can’t guarantee that this feature will work reliable (or at all) on a given system configuration, because we use tricks that are not officially supported or recommended by ATI or Apple, so this feature may or may not work due to factors out of our control. If it works, it may break with future operating system upgrades, so if you need it, better make a backup of your operating system in case you’d need to downgrade!
That said, it works pretty well on the tested machines with Tiger 10.4.11, and it actually worked like that since multiple Psychtoolbox beta releases. The news is that we finally verified it really gives 10 bits resolution on consumer Radeon cards via some perceptual visual test - A nice greyscale gradient test image which shows clearly perceptible intensity steps at the expected locations in 8 bit framebuffer mode, but a smooth gradient in experimental 10 bit framebuffer mode.
On Microsoft Windows and GNU/Linux, the first graphics cards with native, officially vendor supported 10 bit framebuffers start to hit the market. If you happen to have such a card, Psychtoolbox will support it as well, without the need for special experimental tricks. These cards should support 10 bit reliably - assuming the vendors implementation is correct. As of now, vendors have announced some level of 10 bit support for the following cards:
FireGLGPU of the latest 2008 generation is advertised as supporting 10 bit on special 10 bit digital displays (e.g., high precision flat panels with
DisplayPort), it may soon support 10 bit over the analog output as well (ie., VGA driven CRT monitors etc.).
The latest generation NVidia Quadro GPU’s on Linux (and probably Windows?) will support 10 bit output, according to this excerpt from the release notes of the latest NVidia display drivers for Linux.
Support for 10 bpc framebuffers can be enabled via the
PsychImaging('AddTask', 'General', 'EnableNative10BitFramebuffer');subcommand, as demonstrated in the
PsychtoolboxKernelDriverfor OS/X has been refined. We’ve verified that it is able to synchronize (or resynchronize, after some change of display settings or display configuration) the video refresh cycles of two identical displays connected to the two output connectors of a dual-head graphics card. This works only on ATI Radeon graphics cards of the X1000 series (and likely later models of the HD series) and only for one single dual-head card. It has only been tested on the Radeon Mobility X1600 so far. You need to choose identical monitors and identical display settings for resolution, color depths and refresh rate if you want the monitors to stay in sync after a synchronization, otherwise they’ll quickly drift out of sync due to different timing. You need to load the kernel driver as described in
help PsychtoolboxKernelDriver. Then you can issue the
residual = Screen('Preference', 'SynchronizeDisplays', 1);command to trigger a resync. The optional return argument
residualwill contain a remaining offset in scanlines between the two displays. The driver will try up to four times to resync. We always managed to get perfect sync this way. The scripts
GraphicsDisplaySyncAcrossDualHeadsTestallow you to test the sync. The first script allows for a perceptual test, the latter script for some numeric assessment.
PsychtoolboxKernelDriverfor OS/X also provides support for beamposition timestamping on ATI graphics cards – a feature lacking on current OS/X. This support is nothing new, just worth mentioning again.
We no longer unconditionally disable beamposition queries on MS-Windows with Intel GPU’s. Some modern Intel GPU’s will probably work correctly and our tests have improved so much that we should be able to detect problematic chips automatically. So some Intel GPU’s will provide more accurate stimulus timestamping.
Capabilities of the ATI FireGL / FirePro GPU should be now detected correctly on Windows and Linux.
A new image processing function
ImageUndistortionDemo.mhow to use it: It allows application of geometric “unwarp” transformation as created by
DisplayUndistortionBVL/Bezierto textures and offscreen windows by use of
Screen('TransformTexture')instead of as part of preflip operations. This allows for geometric undistortion of input images, instead of whole display devices. The demo is kind of sketchy, that’s why it is added to the
PsychAlpha/subfolder to label it as workable but immature. This method is useful if you don’t want to correct for geometric distortions of your display device (for that, see
help DisplayUndistortionBVL), but if you have some optically distorted input video footage or images (e.g., from some camera) that you want to undistort, or if you want to actually apply a geometric distortion to your visual stimulus image.
- Minor other fixes and updates to help texts.
New built-in workarounds in Screen for broken graphics drivers and operating systems
These workarounds get automatically enabled if the corresponding problem is detected on your system. Some will print out some warning messages to inform you about the problem and possible caveats related to the workaround. Remember: It’s always better to fix the system than to rely on some workaround which can only fix 90% of the problem and isn’t totally for free. Therefore stay informed about graphics driver and operating system updates if your system has problems.
- MS-Windows with many ATI cards and recent NVidia cards/drivers: Beamposition queries fail and therefore get disabled. Certain types of failure can be auto-detected and a workaround is enabled. This workaround should reenable high-precison timestamping on such systems, at the expense of slightly increased processor load in certain cases. The warning message of Screen will tell you about more details and refer you to some help text that explains further caveats of this approach.
- In this release we’ve increased the sensitivity of the test which is
supposed to detect such broken beamposition mechanism on startup, so
it is less likely to miss some broken configs. In case it still
misses some bugs, you can add the new setting
4096to a call
Screen('Preference', 'ConserveVRAM', ...);, see
help ConserveVRAMSettingsfor more info. This will unconditionally enable the special workarounds, even if our test doesn’t detect any problems.
There are still a few unresolvable serious bugs in OS/X 10.5.3 and
10.5.4, especially prominent with NVidia 8000 series hardware for which
no workaround exists. E.g., multi-display operation (stereo setups)
seems to be highly unreliable and dysfunctional. Certain
Screen('CopyWindow') commands can caus a hard graphics system lockup
for no conceivable reason. Many posts on public internet forums and the
Apple mailing lists suggest many more similar serious problems. Only
Apple engineering will be able to fix this. Currently we recommend to
not upgrade to 10.5.3 or 10.5.4 on machines that are crucial for your
New or enhanced demos
AdditiveBlendingForLinearSuperpositionTutorialshows two things:
- How to take advantage of high precision floating point textures, framebuffers and additive alpha-blending to efficiently draw mathematically correct superimposed stimuli, e.g., overlapping gratings with controllable contrast. This demonstrates a very efficient way of doing such things.
- How to enable support for a variety of supported high precision
display devices and methods. The demo shows correct setup of nearly
all currently supported devices. Type
help AdditiveBlendingForLinearSuperpositionTutorialfor an overview. The previous demo, which was specific to the CRS
Bits++box, has been merged into this demo.
SimpleVoiceTriggerDemodemonstrates two different methods of implementing voice triggers via the
BasicSoundInputDemoand a few other scripts demonstrate this as well, but this demo is cut down to show only the essentials of voice trigger support. Please note that this is just a simple threshold-based trigger, nothing fancy. One could implement more clever filtering to make it more robust, but the basic structure would be the same.
DrawMirroredTextDemonow also shows how to mirror (flip) text upside down instead of only left vs. right.
MovingLineDemojust shows a pair of vertical lines which move horizontally over the screen from left to right. The speed of travel can be set. Why? Because it nicely illustrates the kind of display artifacts and strong motion blur you can get for moving stimuli if you use a flat panel instead of a CRT monitor.
New test scripts in
Two tests illustrate the accuracy, or rather inaccuracy, of keypress and mousebuttonpress timestamps. Try them yourself! There are good reasons why special response boxes are still sold and bought for precise reaction time measurements.
KeyboardLatencyTest: This test scripts implements a method to measure absolute keyboard or mouse latency, ie., how close the measured keypress time, e.g., via
GetMouseis to the real keypress time on your standard keyboard, trackpad our mouse. The script relies on a properly configured
PsychPortAudiodriver and a sensitive microphone attached to or close to your keyboard or mouse. I’ve tested it with the built-in microphone of a MacBookPro. The measurement procedure consists of you repeatedly hitting keys on the keyboard or buttons on you mouse / trackpad. The noise made by hitting the buttons or keys gets captured by the microphone and timestamped by our audio driver + threshold based “voice trigger” implementation. Keypress / Mouse button press time is also measured via a tight
GetMouseloop. The script then compares the timestamps of both methods to compute average keypress latency and variability in timing, assuming/knowing that the audio measurements are usually more accurate and low latency on well working audio hardware. The method is of course not perfect, needs careful tuning of sound thresholds and a well working sound card, and you should obviously not trust the measurements down to the millisecond - or at least first verify correct working of the sound trigger method with measurement equipment before trusting it . Still it provides some quite nice illustration of how large and noisy latencies from standard keyboards and mice can be. Also with identical hardware, latencies can vary significantly depending on operating system and model of keyboard or mouse. Example: On a MacBookPro under OS/X average latencies of 16 msecs for external mouse queries and 30 msecs for internal keyboard queries have been observed. The same machine under Ubuntu Linux 7.1 showed also 30 msecs average latency for the keyboard, but 60 msecs latency for the mouse. Variability of mouse timestamps was lower than that of keyboard timestamps.
HIDIntervalTest: This scripts measures the sampling interval of human interface devices (HID), specifically mice and keyboards. During a measurement loop of 10 seconds duration, it asks you to randomly and furiously hit keys on the keyboard, press mouse buttons and move the mouse. Then it plots histograms with the distribution of timestamps collected from mouse button up/down, mouse movement and keypress/release events. The histograms illustrate the sampling – and therefore – quantization of HID devices. Here a few results: On the MacBookPro under OS/X 10.4.11, the internal keyboard as well as buttons on trackpad and mouse are sampled at roughly 8 msec intervals. The sampling frequency of mouse movements however is directly related to the display refresh interval: At 60 Hz refresh, 1000 / 60 = 16.6 msecs. At 75 Hz refresh, 1000 / 75 = 13.333 msecs etc. The same machine under Linux has a constant sampling interval of 8 msecs for mouse, trackpad and keyboard. Some other machine tested under WindowsXP showed a sampling interval of 16 msecs for mouse and keyboard.
Misc other stuff
Diederick C. Niehorster contributed a new function
ShrinkMatrixand a speed improvement to the existing function
Magnify2DMatrix. Both functions are used for shrinking or expanding Matlab matrices.
The file extensions of all MEX files for Matlab 7.4 (
R2007a) and later on Microsoft Windows have been changed from
.mexw32- the preferred name extension in new Matlab releases. This to prevent unneccessary warning messages by the upcoming Matlab
R2008babout deprecated file extensions.